While policyholders frequently negotiate the terms and conditions of primary insurance, it is somewhat less common for policyholders to give the same attention to the language in their excess coverage. Excess policies which state that coverage attaches only after the underlying insurer pays out its full-limits of liability can frustrate policyholders attempting to resolve a coverage dispute with an underlying insurer. Policy wording is critical – as demonstrated in a recent Texas appellate court. Excess insurance can be drafted or endorsed to recognize exhaustion of underlying limits when either the insurer or the policyholder makes the required payments. Policyholders should carefully negotiate the terms of excess – as well as primary – coverage during the renewal process.